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Physiological aspects of cardiac imaging

A. Normal cardiac cycle
1. Systole and diastole
2. Ventricular function
3. Atrial function
  • CT of the Pulmonary Veins
    Lacomis, Joan M. MD; Goitein, Orly MD; Deible, Christopher MD, PhD; Schwartzman, David MD
    Journal of Thoracic Imaging: February 2007 – Volume 22 – Issue 1 – pp 63-76 doi: 10.1097/RTI.0b013e3180317aaf
4. Valvular function
  • Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts
    Richard E. Klabunde, PhD, Associate Professor of Physiology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ohio University Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine
    CVPhysiology.com
  • Handbook of Cardiac Anatomy, Physiology, and Devices (Textbook)
    Iaizzo, Paul A. (Ed.)2nd ed., 2009, X, 700 p. 414 illus., 214 in color. With CD-ROM. A product of Humana Press
B. Electrocardiography
1. Control of excitation and conducation of the heart
  • Cardio Electrophysiology Tutorial
    Richard E. Klabunde, PhD, Associate Professor of Physiology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ohio University Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine
    CVPhysiology.com
2. Characteristics of normal sinus rhythm
  • EKG Slideshow
    Lorraine T. Nott, RT (N), CNMT
    Nuclear Cardiology Seminars
3. Common abnormalities in ECG
a) Premature atrial contraction
b) Premature ventricular contraction
c) Atrial fibrillation
d) Atrial flutter
e) Atrioventricular block
f) Current of injury (signs of myocardial ischemia and infarction)
  • ECG Library
    Dean Jenkins, Consultant Physician, UK, Stephen Gerred, Consultant Physician, Auckland, New Zealand
C. Physiological anatomy of cardiac muscle
  • Braunwald’s Heart Disease, 9th edition, (Part IV – Heart Failure – CHAPTER 24 – Mechanisms of Cardiac Contraction and Relaxation (Textbook)
    Lionel H. Opie, Gerd Hasenfuss Robert O. Bonow, MD, Douglas L. Mann, MD, FACC, Douglas P. Zipes, MD and Peter Libby, MD
D. Mechanics of cardiac contraction 
  • Braunwald’s Heart Disease, 9th edition, (Part IV – Heart Failure – CHAPTER 24 – Mechanisms of Cardiac Contraction and Relaxation (Textbook)
    Lionel H. Opie, Gerd Hasenfuss, Robert O. Bonow, MD, Douglas L. Mann, MD, FACC, Douglas P. Zipes, MD and Peter Libby, MD
E. Physical basis for blood flow, pressure, and resistance 
1. Ventricular volume and pressure relationship
a) Pre-load
      • Cardiac Preload
        Richard E. Klabunde, PhD, Associate Professor of Physiology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ohio University Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine
        CVPhysiology.com
b) After-load
  • Cardiac Afterload
    Richard E. Klabunde, PhD, Associate Professor of Physiology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ohio University Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine
    CVPhysiology.com
2. Practical cardiac measurements
 
a) Ejection fraction
  • MRI of left ventricular function (Abstract)
    Frederick H. Epstein
    Journal of Nuclear Cardiology Volume 14, Number 5 (2007), 729-744, DOI: 10.1016/j.nuclcard.2007.07.006
   
b) Stroke volume
  • Clinical Application of CT Coronary Angiography: State of the Art (Abstract)
    F.R. de Graaf, MD, J.D. Schuijf, PhD, V. Delgado, MD, J.E. van Velzen, MD, L.J. Kroft, MD, PhD, A. de Roos, MD, PhDc, J.W. Jukema, MD, PhDa, E.E. van der Wall, MD, J.J. Bax, MD, PhD
    Heart, Lung and Circulation, Volume 19, Issue 3, March 2010, Pages 107–116 doi.org/10.1016/j.hlc.2009.11.004
c) Left ventricular mass
d) Flow calculation (Q=VxA)
e) Gradient calculation (Bernoulli equation, G=4xPV2)
f) Qp/Qs ratio
g) Diastolic heart function
3. Normal cardiac and pulmonary pressures; Vascular regions supplied by the coronary arteries; Standard nomenclature for topographic imaging of the heart
  • Pathophysiology of Heart Failure
    Richard E. Klabunde, PhD, Associate Professor of Physiology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ohio University Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine
    CVPhysiology.com
      • Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease 
        Richard E. Klabunde, PhD, Associate Professor of Physiology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ohio University Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine
        CVPhysiology.com