Physiological aspects of cardiac imaging

A. Normal cardiac cycle
1. Systole and diastole
 
  2. Ventricular function
 
 
3. Atrial function
  • CT of the Pulmonary Veins
    Lacomis, Joan M. MD; Goitein, Orly MD; Deible, Christopher MD, PhD; Schwartzman, David MD
    Journal of Thoracic Imaging: February 2007 – Volume 22 – Issue 1 – pp 63-76 doi: 10.1097/RTI.0b013e3180317aaf
4. Valvular function
  • Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts
    Richard E. Klabunde, PhD, Associate Professor of Physiology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ohio University Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine
    CVPhysiology.com
B. Electrocardiography
  1. Control of excitation and conducation of the heart
  • Cardio Electrophysiology Tutorial
    Richard E. Klabunde, PhD, Associate Professor of Physiology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ohio University Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine
    CVPhysiology.com

Thomas Schimming

2. Characteristics of normal sinus rhythm
  • EKG Slideshow
    Lorraine T. Nott, RT (N), CNMT
    Nuclear Cardiology Seminars
3. Common abnormalities in ECG
  a) Premature atrial contraction
b) Premature ventricular contraction
c) Atrial fibrillation
d) Atrial flutter
e) Atrioventricular block
f) Current of injury (signs of myocardial ischemia and infarction)
  • ECG Library
    Dean Jenkins, Consultant Physician, UK, Stephen Gerred, Consultant Physician, Auckland, New Zealand
C. Physiological anatomy of cardiac muscle
    Emory University
D. Mechanics of cardiac contraction 
E. Physical basis for blood flow, pressure, and resistance 
  1. Ventricular volume and pressure relationship
  a) Pre-load
    • Cardiac Preload
    • Richard E. Klabunde, PhD, Associate Professor of Physiology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ohio University Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine

    CVPhysiology.com
b) After-load
  • Cardiac Afterload
    Richard E. Klabunde, PhD, Associate Professor of Physiology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ohio University Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine
    CVPhysiology.com
2. Practical cardiac measurements
 
a) Ejection fraction
   
b) Stroke volume
   
  • Clinical Application of CT Coronary Angiography: State of the Art (Abstract)
    F.R. de Graaf, MD, J.D. Schuijf, PhD, V. Delgado, MD, J.E. van Velzen, MD, L.J. Kroft, MD, PhD, A. de Roos, MD, PhDc, J.W. Jukema, MD, PhDa, E.E. van der Wall, MD, J.J. Bax, MD, PhD
    Heart, Lung and Circulation, Volume 19, Issue 3, March 2010, Pages 107–116 doi.org/10.1016/j.hlc.2009.11.004
   
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
c) Left ventricular mass
  • Heart valve disease: investigation by cardiovascular magnetic resonance
    Saul G Myerson
    Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance 2012, 14:7 doi:10.1186/1532-429X-14-7
    • The Role of Cardiac MR in New-Onset Heart Failure (Abstract)
      Yong-Jin Kim and Raymond J. Kim

Current Cardiology Reports Volume 13, Number 3 (2011), 185-193, DOI: 10.1007/s11886-011-0179-0

d) Flow calculation (Q=VxA)
  • Quantification of Flow Dynamics in Congenital Heart Disease: Applications of Velocity-encoded Cine MR Imaging 
    Gita A. Varaprasathan, Philip A. Araoz, Charles B. Higgins, and Gautham P. Reddy
    Radiographics July 2002 22:4 895-905
e) Gradient calculation (Bernoulli equation, G=4xPV2)
  • Quantification of Flow Dynamics in Congenital Heart Disease: Applications of Velocity-encoded Cine MR Imaging 
    Gita A. Varaprasathan, Philip A. Araoz, Charles B. Higgins, and Gautham P. Reddy
    Radiographics July 2002 22:4 895-905
    • Velocity-encoded Cine MR Imaging in Aortic Coarctation: Functional Assessment of Hemodynamic Events Jeffrey J. Hom, Karen Ordovas, and Gautham P. Reddy 

Radiographics March-April 2008 28:2 407-416; doi:10.1148/rg.282075705

  • Detection and Quantification of Valvular Heart Disease with Dynamic Cardiac MR Imaging Dominique Didier, Osman Ratib, René Lerch, and Beat Friedli Radiographics September 2000 20:5 1279-1299
f) Qp/Qs ratio

K Debl, B Djavidani, S Buchner, N Heinicke, F Poschenrieder, S Feuerbach, G Riegger, and A Luchner
Br J Radiol May 2009 82:386-391; published ahead of print January 19, 2009, doi:10.1259/bjr/18500608

g) Diastolic heart function
3. Normal cardiac and pulmonary pressures; Vascular regions supplied by the coronary arteries; Standard nomenclature for topographic imaging of the heart
  • Pathophysiology of Heart Failure 
    Richard E. Klabunde, PhD, Associate Professor of Physiology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ohio University Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine
    CVPhysiology.com
    • Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease 
      Richard E. Klabunde, PhD, Associate Professor of Physiology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ohio University Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine
    • CVPhysiology.com